Timber failure modes

The main materials/products cross sections and geometries used for timber beam are presented. Furthermore, their general failure modes are described and typical retrofitting and reinforcement techniques are given. The techniques include wood to wood replacements, use of mechanical fasteners and additional strengthening materials/products timber failure mode of reduced cross section by charring, the failure mode of ply delamination is often overlooked and understudied. Due to the reduction of shear and normal strength in the adhesive, the perfect bond assumption can be questioned and a deeper look into the mechanics of CLT composite action and interfacia

Wood Beam Failure Modes. Wood research glulam beams externally the typical failure modes obtained from design of connections in timber structures ce center fatigue behavior of wood fiber based. Typical Failure Modes Of Frp Wood Beams Under Three Point Bending With Scientific Diagram. Sustaility Full Text Determination Of Initial Stiffness.

Failure modes and reinforcement techniques for timber

TF test failure mode (prevailing failure mechanism in test) t1 thickness of outer timber member t2 thickness of inner timber member tS thickness of steel plate vmax connection slip at maximum load ρm mean density of the test materia Failures In Timber Beams If a beam is loaded too heavily it will break or fail in some characteristic manner. These failures may be classified according to the way in which they develop, as tension, compression, and horizontal shear; and according to the appearance of the broken surface, as brash, and fibrous THE SHEAR STRENGTH, AND FAILURE MODES, OF TIMBER JOISTS OBTAINED FROM THE TORSION TEST METHOD Aamir Khokhar1, Hexin Zhang2, Daniel Ridley-Ellis3 ABSTRACT: This paper presents details of the experimental method and test results from a series of torsion tests undertaken to evaluate the shear strength of timber joists COMMON FAILURE MODES OF RETAINING WALLS • Bending failure of a 36-inch wide flange H-beam retaining wall constructed at the base of a creeping slope in Richmond, California, along a state route

Wood Beam Failure Modes - The Best Picture Of Bea

  1. ated yield of wood fibers MODE II •pivoting of fastener with localized crushing of wood fibers 13 MODE III •fastener yield in Lateral Yield Modes bending at one plastic hinge and bearing - do
  2. Here you can see an animation of the three failure modes for a timber beam that we will be checking this semester, shear, bending, and deflection. Scroll down to see all three beam failure modes. Shear Failure Mode. This is a strength failure mode which is typically seen in shorter beams. Bending Failure Mode
  3. Failure Modes from Mechanics of Wood and Wood Composites, J. Bodig & B.A. Jayne, Krieger Publishing, 1993, pp. vii, 5, 291, 297, 299, 305. Compressio

Failures In Timber Beams - ChestofBooks

In 1949, Johansen developed a quite simple rigid-plastic theory able to predict well the failure loads of timber connections when brittle failures - like splitting or block shear or plug shear failure modes - are prevented A design procedure is proposed to identify the wood and fastener capacities under possible brittle, mixed and ductile failure modes of timber connections. For the wood capacity, the effective wood thickness is taken into account at each potential failure zone The first series focused on identifying the changing failure modes while the second series established conditions that led to those failure modes in large CLT beams. The results clearly showed the failure mode of CLT changes from timber failure to failure in the adhesive as a function of the in-depth temperatures Failure Mode 6 12 6 12 Fyfe 316 240 61.15 90.5 Timber Aquawrap® 99 56 20.4 22.3 Bond Phenolic 112 69 24.1 26.0 Timber Simpson 276 200 55.9 76 Timber Sika 334 204 68.8 80 Timber • For a 10 pile, design capacity is around 96 kips • Timber failure indicates FRP bond exceeds timber strength • No system provides enough shear strengt The only ductile failure mode is the bearing or embedment instance, in a block tear-out failure (Fig. 1), the contribution of failure mode, in which the dowel compresses the wood up to yield- the bottom or lateral shear planes to the wood resistance cannot ing, which results in localized wood crushing

Week 3 - Timber Beam Lecture slide

Brittle failure can occur in joints with insufficient end distance, edge distance, and (or) bolt spacing. The proposed model can be used to determine analytically the points of stress concentrations in the zone of contact between the fastener and the timber and predict the brittle modes of failure in dowel-type timber joints Failure modes in percentage of cases Failure cause [in % of cases] Timber [own survey] Steel [Oehme, Vogt] Concrete [Brand, Glatz ] Design / planning 53 35 40 Construction work 27 25 40 Maintenance / reuse 35 material 11 other 9 5 20 difficult to compare -definition of categories, number of cases etc TIMBER CROSSTIE SPIKE FASTENER FAILURE INVESTIGATION SUMMARY University of Illinois' (UIUC) researchers (FEM) to help describe the spike failure modes. This suggests that spike failure is a mechanism problem due to a certain stress condition, an is in shadow, a compression failure appears as a dark, irregular line across the grain.Figure 6 shows a compression failure as it appears by transmitted light. This method is usually more effective with light-colored woods, such as Sitka spruce, than with dark-colored species, such as mahogany. A ligh

Failure Mode No. 1 - Wood Truss Handling & Hoisting. The majority of injuries sustained with regard to wood truss systems occur during handling, hoisting, and installing. Handling and hoisting a wood truss is the first step before the wood truss can be installed and braced. Wood trusses are only strong when they are grouped together, meaning. Wood Truss Mishaps & Failure Modes. A wood truss is an individual component that must work together in a wood truss system. The majority of claims and injuries associated with wood trusses occur during their handling, hoisting, or installation. Accordingly, standards exist in the wood truss industry addressing the proper installation and.

STRUCTURE magazine | Design of Bolted Connections per the

Lecture Notes - Missouri S&

  1. Chapter 14 -timber rivets Adjustment factors 7. DES 345 -Connection Design Examples NDS CH. 11 -MECHANICAL CONNECTIONS 8. Nail Size 10d Mode Im 785 Diameter (in.) 0.148 Mode Is 280 Fyb (psi) 90000 Mode II 262 Length (in.) 3 Mode IIIm 272 Mode IIIs 121 Mode IV 12
  2. 5) Creep: When a body deforms over time. Those analyzing concrete structures like bridges or buildings know this mode of failure very well. Creep is simply the natural tendency of some solid materials to move slowly or deform permanently under stress
  3. Corpus ID: 112479596. Load-Carrying Capacity and Failure Mode Analysis of Timber Rivet Connections @inproceedings{Zarnani2013LoadCarryingCA, title={Load-Carrying Capacity and Failure Mode Analysis of Timber Rivet Connections}, author={P. Zarnani}, year={2013}
  4. ed by testing (prEN 13381-7
  5. Meanwhile, pile failure modes with no liquefaction-induced phenomena can be described as follows [2]: (1) Failure caused by inertial force of superstructure. The main positions of damage are joints between pile head and pile cap or the top of pile. The main failure modes are tension, compression and compression-shear failure
  6. mostly to make the glulam fail in compression mode, which is more ductile. Compression failure models for FRP reinforced timber are not available, but several studies have been investigating this failure process in FRP and timber separately, and analytical models were presented. A review of these studies is also presented in the present paper

When designing GIR connections, the load path and failure modes of adjoining members should be carefully considered. Apart from the tensile failure of the rods or pull-out due to bondline failure, wood failure modes in the vicinity of the rods due to shear, splitting, net-tension, or group tear-out are possible (Figure 1). Rods may also. Schober et al. analyzed FRP reinforcement of timber structures and presented, i.a., possible failure modes that can occur in the structure and should be considered. The following modes were distinguished: mode 1—failure of the timber in tension while in compression the response is linear elastic, and mode 2—failure of the timber in tension. For all tests, the 3D numerical models accurately predicted the overall load-displacement responses, load redistribution mechanisms, failure modes and strain developments in the beams and CLT panels. The validated numerical models were used to conduct a series of parametric studies to further examine the structural responses of the post-and. Failure cases can be found for roof structures made of all major building materials, concrete, steel and timber but media attention in Germany during 2006 focussed on the fact that one of the fatal failures, situated in Bad Reichenhall, had a wooden roof, see Fig. 1. The investigation showed that several circumstances contributed to the failure This video shows the compression failure of a Class CL28 softwood timber block loaded parallel to the grain.Learning Outcomes: Viewers will gain an improved.

During full-scale timber tests, we expect a failure mode intended. However, some specimens showed a different failure from the intended ones in many cases. For example, in tension tests of structural timber, grip failures (unintended failure) happened . The tension grip can damage the timber during the test Yield Modes MODE I •bibearing-di ddominated yield of wood fibers MODE II •pivoting of fastener with localized crushing of wood fibers 63 Yield Modes MODE III •fastener yield in bdi tbending at one plastic hinge and bearing - dominated yield of wood fibers MODE IV •fastener yield in bending at two 64 plastic hinges and bearing.

Timber Timber has been used as a construction material from when humans began to build houses. As a lintel it has a number of benefits that many other materials can't match. Timber is easy to cut, shape and fix to the wall, and is more thermally efficient than both stone and concrete Timber Thickness Density Failure Mode Perpendic~ rain End Distance Perpendicular - to the Grain Bolt Hole Size CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES . TABLES Table 1: Construction schedule for joints loaded parallel to the grain Table 2: Construction schedule or joints loade However, in both orientations, the failure modes of hybrid CLT were similar to those of Poplar CLT. The experimental dominant failure modes in the major axis orientation of CLTs were rolling shear and delamination, while tensile failure and crack were mainly observed in the minor axis orientation. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a composite.


Timber frame connections use wood pegs to secure the tenon within the mortise. The design of these connections is currently beyond the scope of building codes, including the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS). Full-size joints were tested to determine failure modes and to establish minimum edge and end distances that. Hybrid timber-concrete (HTC) floor systems are well-suited for prefabricated construction and so have seen widespread use in modern sustainable buildings. In total, eight HTCC floor panels were prepared and tested, with the flexural capacities and critical failure modes analysed for each. Effects of different core geometries, shear force.

Flexural Strengthening of Old Timber Floors with Laminated

Failure Modes in beams. There are two common types of failure in slender, non Prestressed flexural elements that carry the load in one direction only are. Compression failure of the Compressive Chord ductile flexural failure: After yielding of the reinforcement, if no redistribution of forces is possible, the deformations of the beam become important while the structure deflects in a. The proposed stiffness-based model has already been verified in brittle and mixed failure modes of timber rivet connections. In the research reported in this paper, an extended application is proposed for other small-dowel-type fasteners such as nails and screws. Results of nailed joint tests on laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and the test data. According to this analysis, the end arm directly affects the bending moment distribution of the beam, which, in turn, affects the ultimate load and failure mode of the beam. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence of the end arm on the glulam beam. 2.3. Principles for Determining Failure and Ultimate Loads

Retaining walls: Types and failure modes

  1. 2.1 Mode 1 - the withdrawal failure of screw Mode 1 states the withdrawal of the screw from the timber component without any sign of crushing in the timber whilst Mode 2 indicates some horizontal displacement of fastener followed by crushing of the timber component ( Figure 1). As discussed in Symon et al. (2010), in Mode 1
  2. e yield mode capacity at each bolt shear plane. 3) Deter
  3. three different failure modes. The governing failure mode depends primarily on the geometry of the beam support and on the geometry of the reinforcing screws i.e. their slenderness ratio. Further parameters influencing the load-carrying capacity are the number and the yield strength of the screws and the strength class of the timber
  4. Aira JR, Arriaga F, Íñiguez-González G, Guaita M. Failure modes in halved and tabled tenoned timber scarf jount by tension test. Constr Build Mater. 2015;96:360-7. Article Google Scholar 8. Thelandersson S, Larsen HJ. Timber engineering. Chichester: Wiley; 2003. Google Scholar 9. Yeomans D
  5. ated timber (glulam) members made with all L1 Douglas fir-Larch la
  6. through the structure, leading to higher costs in the event of failure. In the particular case of timber structures, seismic design requires a much closer attention to detailing of connections. This can, indirectly, provide enhanced robustness since a plastic mechanism and for avoiding brittle failure modes. Using the capacity design method.

Strength of timber connections under potential failure

Lecture Notes

Bolts seldom last you a lifetime, and they are prone to failure caused by fatigue. The efficiency of bolts diminishes over prolonged use. As is the case with excess stress, the application of internal and external forces are factors that determine the failure or strength of a bolt - they can be estimated roughly, according to the number of load. In structural engineering, buckling is the sudden change in shape (deformation) of a structural component under load, such as the bowing of a column under compression or the wrinkling of a plate under shear.If a structure is subjected to a gradually increasing load, when the load reaches a critical level, a member may suddenly change shape and the structure and component is said to have buckled Description. The design of multiple bolted connections in accordance with Appendix E of the National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS) has incorporated provisions for evaluating localized member failure modes of row and group tear-out when the connections are closely spaced. Originally based on structural glued laminated timber. Failure modes. Failure mode is the manner by which an earthquake induced failure is observed. It, generally, describes the way the failure occurs. Though costly and time consuming, learning from each real earthquake failure remains a routine recipe for advancement in seismic design methods. Below, some typical modes of earthquake-generated.

Changing Failure Modes of Cross-Laminated Timbe

  1. This paper presents the results of a static lateral loading test performed on a traditional timber farmhouse in Japan. The aim of this research is to clarify the horizontal load carrying capacity and the failure mode of this type of house by full-scale experiment
  2. This was probably caused by an exceedance of the timber strength. This failure mode was observed in the specimens of series 5. The maximum compression of the tenon reached values from about 12 mm up to 15 mm.</P>Failure of the bottom face - The specimens of series 6 showed deep compressions in the bottom face of the beams ( Fig. 8 )..
  3. The most important aspects of the two composite systems are compared: mechanical behavior of connectors and structural behaviors of full-scale composite beams (e.g., failure modes, connection stiffness, connection shear strength, ultimate load-carrying capacity, maximum deflection and composite efficiency). This comprehensive review indicates.
  4. istration. The methods are restricted based on factors such as pile spacing, soil profile, construction grade timber lagging, and depth limits

Material Handler, Container Service for Recycling, Convenient Recycling Drop off manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Excavator Intelligent Front Tool Attachment Hydraulic Timber/Log Orange Peel Rotary Grab, 079800-5580 Pressure Sensor for Isuzu 4HK1/6HK1, Hino J08e, Cat E320d Excavator, 079800-5550 Pressure Sensor for Mitsubishi, Fawde, Hino J08e, Cat E320d Excavator and so on Different brittle, mixed and ductile failure modes of timber connections have long been observed by wood researchers. The wood engineering community has dedicated a significant amount of effort over the last decades to establish a reliable predictive model to determine the capacity of timber connections under different failure modes.

Vulnerability Analysis of Ancient Timber Architecture by Considering the Correlation of Different Failure Modes other failure modes. e highest vulnerability obtained is thatcalculated byFrankCopulafunction. Withincreasing PGA, the gap between the Copulas curves and others i The failure mode of a connector determines the strength of the joint. By changing the failure mode of the metal respectively. The failure mechanisms with the greatest strengths are (a) or (b). If one can force this type of failure by ensuring crushing of the timber, then the smallest, strongest connection will result. This type of failure Analysis of structural failures in timber structures: Typical causes for failure and failure modes Frühwald, Eva LU () In Engineering Structures 33 (11). p.2978-2982. Mark; Abstract Collapses of timber structures are negative for the competitiveness of timber on the construction market Such a failure mode can for any mechanical system be assigned to one of the following three categories: series systems, parallel systems or combination of series and parallel system (also referred as hybrid systems). In series systems failure of any element leads to the failure of the system • Performance of timber connections exposed to fire can be quite complex based on type of fastener, geometry of connection, different failure modes • Most building codes, including the IBC, do not provide specific fire design methodology for determining the fire performance of timber connections

(PDF) The shear strength, and failure modes, of timber

Wood block tear-out resistance and failure modes of timber

3) Explain why timber beams are so weak in shear. Question: 1) What is the major weakness (most common failure mode) of light gage steel construction, and why is it such a vulnerability? 2) List six factors that affect the allowable stresses of timber members. 3) Explain why timber beams are so weak in shear Failure modes of bolts in shear Shear failure of bolts Average shearing stress in the bolt = • P is the load acting on an individual bolt • A is the area of the bolt and db is its diameter Strength of the bolt = Hole bearing Hole tearout Bolt shear

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Authors:environment. Daniel Moroder PTL | Structural Consultants Tobias Smith PTL | Structural Consultants WORKING GROUP Bjørn Stankowitz EngCO Consulting Engin Hi, I am using this mod, version: [FORGE] timber-1.16.4-1.8.1.jar for my server. [My server is 1.16.4] There is something wrong with the mod, the first time you would join the server, it would work normally, however, after a couple of minutes later, it just stops working - regardless of me enabling or disabling the mod by the v binding The photo above shows an unusual mode of pallet timber failure (compression damage) resulting from too great a superimposed load in stack and/or too small a timber section to resist the load. Apart from the pallet damage, the damage to the sheet material even before delivery to the customer can be clearly seen (compression damage is actually a. Beam failures could be in flexure, torsion, and shear due to the exceed of the design loads in either failure mode. Depending on the type of load that could exert on the beam and when it reaches the relevant factored load, there is a change of structural failure Due to the very low rolling shear stiffness of timber significant shear deformations may occur. LR and LT shear are the two kinds of longitudinal shear. Wood is generally more resistant to longitudinal shear than rolling shear; however, longitudinal shear is a common failure mode in an overloaded beam

20 VOL 27 ISSUE 3 NEW ZEALAND TIMBER DESIGN JOURNAL Figure 3: Division of a connection into outer and inner parts made by Hanhijärvi and Kevarinmäki (2007, 2008), and its possible failure modes. Figure 4: Analogy of the studied connection with a spring model. the load capacity F B of a connection with four shea Failure modes and mechanisms in cast iron pipe. Failures in cast iron water mains are more complex and diverse than is widely understood in the industry. This paper discusses the modes and causes of pipe failures that have been encountered during a three year investigation by the National Research Council Canada Failure mode. For Series-A1, A2, and A3 with out-of-plane loads, only local pressure was caused by the steel-bearing plates in the outermost lamina. This generally occurred even without the failure of the specimen if the deformation exceeded 20 mm. In some test specimens, however, the outermost lamina failed perpendicular to the grains

The different failure modes may include overtopping, seismic failure, or foundation defects. Overtopping is one of the many reasons why dams fail. This failure is caused by water spilling over the top of the dam, which is mainly due to inadequate spillway design, possible debris blockage of spillways, or the dam crest settling There were three main failure modes, namely breakage of the bottom plate (Fig. 6a), failure of the adhesive layer in the tensile zone (Fig. 6b), and failure of the rolling shear (Fig. 6c). However, a specimen was more likely to be destroyed where a defect was concentrated (decay, wood section, etc. ) (Fig. 6d)

Changing Failure Modes of Cross-Laminated Timber - COR

A 6 by 6 timber post joining system with a mortise and tenon connection style were used throughout this study. These bending tests are conducted and reported herein to determine the predominate failure modes based off of the inclusion of filler-modules and gussets D13.1 - Operational failure modes of S&Cs CAPACITY4RAIL SCP3-GA-2013-605650 CAPACITY4RAIL PUBLIC Page 13 FAILURE SUMMARY A matrix of the failures presented in this catalogue was produced highlighting which component and what root causes they are referring to. This is presented in a table form on the following two pages Failure Modes Shear: A beam can fail due to violation of its shear design strength. Flexure: Several possible failure modes must be considered. A beam can fail by reaching Mp (fully plastic), or it can fail by • Lateral torsional buckling (LTB), elastically or inelasticall 1. Failure of a connection. This is one of the most critical and most frequent failure in the steel structure. We can design any steel member quite beautifully with exact precision, but to design a joint, it becomes tedious. You need to consider the load envelope and then design the joint for the maximum possible force 8. Examine and sketch the failure. Typical failure modes are shown in Figures 4.1 for concrete and 4.2 for wood. 3.3 RECORD OF TEST DATA AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 3.3.1 Concrete cylinder (a) Initial diameter, Di = Initial area, Ai = mm (b) Gauge length, L = (c) The data acquisition system is set up to calculate and record the strains, H= , and.

Numerical modelling of timber and timber joints

The plastic compression behaviour of timber and different failure modes, depending on the ratio of tension and compression strength, are taken into account. 2. Theoretical Basis of Models 2.1 Stiffness Model The initial location of the neutral axis from the tension face, y Et max and the stiffness, EE transfer, charring properties of wood, failure mode of the wood, and their influence on the time to failure of the connections. The finite element model results were in good agreement with the observations made from the experimental tests. The variation between the test and the model results was within a ±11% envelope 9.1 Short and Long Columns - Modes of Failure Column slenderness and length greatly influence a column's ability to carry load. • Very short, stout columns fail by crushing due to material failure. - Failure occurs once the stress exceeds the elastic (yield point) limit of the material 3 .brittle failure of a bolted timber joint and improving load-carrying capacity The proposed model can be used to determine analytically the points of stress concentrations in the zone of contact between the fastener and the timber and predict the brittle modes of failure in dowel-type timber joints

Failure modes: (a) row-shear (b) shear-plug / group tear

Thermally driven failure mode changes in bonded timber joint

The ability to yield and displace without fracturing under abrupt lateral or horizontal stresses is an attribute of wood-frame construction, which features several nailed connections that allow it to respond to seismic and high-wind events without critical failure. Redundant Load Paths. The numerous fasteners and connectors used in wood-frame. glued laminated timber. 45. Licensed for/Autorisé à John Stoll Sold by/vendu par CSA on/le April/19/2016. ~Single user license only. Storage, distribution or use on network prohibited. Permis d'utilisateur simple seulement. Le stockage, la distribution ou l'utilisation sur le réseau est interdit Column Buckling 31 Buckling is a mode of failure generally resulting from structural instability due to compressive action on the structural member or element involved. Examples of commonly seen and used tools are provided. 31. Buckling 32 Example 32. Buckling 33 Example 33. Buckling 34 Example 34. Buckling 35 Example 35 Summary Type. -- Include All -- Case Study Lesson Learned. Field of Study. -- Include All -- Emergency Response General Design and Construction Geologic Geotechnical Human Factors Hydrologic Hydraulic Mechanical and Electrical Operation and Maintenance Regulatory Seismic Structural Other Field of Study. Dam Type 4 Structural and Materials Division Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang At the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Explain the failure modes of compression member. Design the timber compression member. LEARNING OUTCOME

Vulnerability Analysis of Ancient Timber Architecture by

A resilient slip friction joint. P Zarnani, P Quenneville. Patent No. WO2016185432A1, NZ IP Office. , 2015. 50. 2015. Strength of timber connections under potential failure modes: An improved design procedure. P Zarnani, P Quenneville. Construction and Building Materials 60, 81-90 This online app designs glued-in rods connections (GIR) for timber structures. The design rules used in this software will be based on theoretical, experimental and numerical research, as well as an extensive literature study. Using the software, the resistance of a GIR connection can be determined for the different possible failure modes Abstract. Fire-testing data, such as charring rates and failure modes of structural elements exposed to ISO-standard fires, for unprotected cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels made of domestic timber were investigated to apply the reduced-cross-section method to CLT panels. For the charring rates, a series of fire tests without loading was.

CE Center - Cross Laminated TimberIBOIS à la conférence World Conference on Timber

Mechanical and physical properties of Cross-Laminated

The tension mode failure occurs over the range from 70oo−90 . R R X X 2 1 D ot oc Bearing Shear Out Tension Figure 19-6 Regions of hole failure modes. Ply lay-up and hole diameter relative to the plate width have a significant effect on failure mode type and strength of the joint, as seen in Fig.19-7. In this figure the maximum joint load, P ma Stress contour of the failure modes of the FE model under ambient bending: (a) three-layer failure mode near support and (b) five-layer failure mode at mid-span. Thermal analysis The thermal model is validated by comparing the temperature distribution calculated by the FE model with the experimental results measured from the fire tests

Analytical model for predicting brittle failures of bolted

alone in its use of timber piles to support highways. The highest ever-recorded design load for timber piles in U.S. highway construction is a 1,000-foot long viaduct, supported by timber piles, which have a 75-ton design load on Interstate 80 near Winnemucca, Nevada. Timber piles are most common and economical for loads in the range of 5 to 40. Load-carrying capacity and failure modes of glulam beams with reinforced notches R Jockwer, R Steiger, A Frangi, E Serrano European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 74 (3), 481-482 , 201

Wood Truss Failure Modes - What You Should Kno

List of largest wood-based panel producers in China. With a total production of 1,490,000 m3/year, Jilin Sen Workers' Forming Group Co., Ltd., is China's top wood based panel producer followed by Daya Shengxiang Home Co., Ltd. and Ningfeng Group Co., Ltd, on the second and third place

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