Norovirus structure diagram

Diagramme schnell und einfach erstellen. Datenschutz wird bei uns groß geschrieben - Lucidchart ist GDPR zertifiziert The structure of the norovirus capsid (genogroup I Norwalk strain) has been solved to near atomic resolution by X-ray crystallography [ 40 ]. 180 copies of VP1 are arranged to form a T =3 icosahedral virion. VP1 folds into two major domains designated S for the shell domain and P for the protruding domain [ 40 ] 4.2.2. Virion Structure and Environmental Stability. Norovirus virion is nonenveloped and approximately 27 nm in diameter.Each virion is composed of 90 dimers of VP1 arranged on a T=3 icosahedral symmetry with a cup-shaped morphology under electron microscopy (Chen et al., 2004, Dolin et al., 1982, Prasad et al., 1999).The P2 domain of VP1 is the most surface-exposed part of the virion and. The norovirus classification scheme external icon was updated in 2019 and includes the following changes: Noroviruses are now classified into ten genogroups (GI-GX) and 48 genotypes. Some genotypes were reclassified, for example, GII.15 became a new genogroup GIX

(B) Schematic diagram of norovirus genome structure highlighting the position of the various open reading frames (ORFs) and the region contained in the subgenomic RNA that is generated during viral replication. Both genomic and subgenomic RNAs are linked to the virus-encoded protein VPg (NS5). Pathogenesis of norovirus infections in human A Block Diagram showing 753 Norovirus. You can edit this Block Diagram using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website Non-enveloped, capsid of about 38-40 nm in diameter, with T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is composed of 180 VP1 proteins. Small empty virions are about 23nm in diameter, and would be of T=1 icosahedral symmetry, composed of 60 VP1 proteins Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in the United States. Gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and the small and large intestines, may be experienced as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. Although norovirus infection is sometimes referred to as stomach flu, gastroenteritis is distinct from flu. Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis. Infection is characterized by non-bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Fever or headaches may also occur. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after being exposed, and recovery typically occurs within 1 to 3 days. Complications are uncommon, but may include dehydration.

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A norovirus protease structure provides insights into active and substrate binding site integrity. J. Virol. 2005; 79: 13685 - 13693. Ng KK, Cherney MM, Vazquez AL, Machin A, Alonso JM, Parra F, et al. Crystal structures of active and inactive conformations of a caliciviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 2002; 277: 1381 - 1387 Norovirus is a very contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhea. Anyone can get infected and sick with norovirus. You can get norovirus from: Having direct contact with an infected person. Consuming contaminated food or water. Touching contaminated surfaces and then putting your unwashed hands in your mouth. More

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Virus Structure: A virus is an infectious non-living particle that cannot survive on its own.It is considered to be non-living because it cannot exist purely by itself. It requires a host cell to replicate itself and uses the host cell replication and protein synthesis machinery to create progeny of its own norovirus; virus receptor; bile acid; crystallography; Murine norovirus (MNoV) and human noroviruses (HNoVs) share biological similarities including genome structure, environmental stability, fecal-oral transmission, replication in the gastrointestinal tract, and prolonged viral shedding ().MNoV is an important model system for noroviruses in part because it is the only member of the. A structure-based alignment of 43 capsid protein sequences was created based on the X-ray crystallographic structure of Norwalk strain capsid protein (Protein Data Bank identification, 1IHM) (Prasad et al., 1999) and other NoV capsid protein structures that were predicted by use of the MODELER program (INSIGHT II, version 2000.1, Accelrys Inc.

Norovirus protein structure and function FEMS

  1. Structure of Norovirus The virus has a non-enveloped structure, consisting of a capsid and nucleic acid, measures 38-40 nm in diameter, and has a T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The capsid is composed of 180 VP1 proteins. The small, empty capsids measure about 23 nm, with a T=1 icosahedral symmetry, and 60 VP1 proteins (Fig 2)
  2. Shaded depth-cue representations of norovirus VLP structures viewed along the icosahedral twofold axis, colored purple (subunit A), blue (subunit B), green (subunit C), and pink (subunit D). The positions of asymmetric units are identified by black lines

Structure and Genotypes of Noroviruses - ScienceDirec

Norovirus Virus Classification CD

The molecular pathology of noroviruses - Karst - 2015

Norovirus, also called the winter vomiting bug, is a stomach bug that causes vomiting and diarrhoea. It can be very unpleasant, but usually goes away in about 2 days. Check if you have norovirus. The main symptoms of norovirus are: feeling sick (nausea) diarrhoea; being sick (vomiting Structure. Coronavirus virions are spherical to pleomorphic enveloped particles ().The envelope is studded with projecting glycoproteins, and surrounds a core consisting of matrix protein enclosed within which is a single strand of positive-sense RNA (Mr 6 × 10 6) associated with nucleoprotein.The envelope glycoproteins are responsible for attachment to the host cell and also carry the main. norovirus, and describes the existing state of mathematical modelling of the infections that it causes in humans. It then records the aims of the FSA study and the contribution that this report makes to fulfil those aims. Finally, this chapter outlines the structure of the remainder of this report. 1.1 On Norovirus

753 Norovirus Editable Diagram Template on Createl

  1. norovirus infection. Specifically, these studies have as their primary focus the structure-based design and optimization of a dipeptidyl series of inhibitors of norovirus 3CL protease, an enzyme shown to be essential for replication of the virus and a validated target for the development of anti-norovirus therapeutics
  2. Norovirus is one of the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis worldwide and responsible for substantial morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. This basic framework can be adapted to include age or spatial structure, stochastic transitions or additional infectious states such as asymptomatic infection. Diagram of citations between.
  3. they resemble veins in structure: o three layers - but much thinner o 1-way valves - but many more (every few mm or so) o also has lymph nodes at intervals along its course o as they converge they become larger and larger . 3 Lymphatic Ducts • these lymphatic trunks merge together to form two major Lymphatic Ducts.
  4. ing the structure of the drug target: Crystal structure of the hNoV GII.4 protease Kuiper et al., Infectious Disorders -Drug Targets, 2018 Muzzarelli et al., Biochemistry, in press. We have identified four new norovirus PIs (2905.

Abstract. The mechanism and role of RNA structure elements in the replication and translation of Caliciviridae remains poorly understood. Several algorithmically independent methods were used to predict secondary structures within the Norovirus, Sapovirus, Vesivirus and Lagovirus genera. All showed profound suppression of synonymous site variability (SSSV) at genomic 5′ ends and the start of. Norovirus infection, computer illustration. Norovirus is a genus of RNA (ribonucleic acid) viruses (of the family Caliciviridae), which cause about half of all gastroenteritis cases around the world. The disease is characterised by nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain

Norovirus ~ ViralZone - Expas

  1. The genomes of positive strand RNA viruses often contain more than one open reading frame. Some of these viruses have evolved novel mechanisms to regulate the synthesis of the other open reading frames that in some cases involved the production of a subgenomic RNA or RNAs. Very often, the presence of the subgenomic RNA is used as indicator for active viral genome replication
  2. us (C-ter
  3. Structure of SARS-CoV nsp12 bound to nsp7 and nsp8 co-factors. a Diagram of the SARS-CoV nsp7, nsp8, and nsp12 proteins indicating domains, conserved motifs, and the protein regions observed in.

Author summary The capsid structure of caliciviruses has been reported to be classified into two different types, according to the species and genotype. One is the rising type of P domain conformation as shown in human norovirus GII.10 and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), where the P domain rises from the S domain surface. The other is the resting type of P domain conformation as shown. INTRODUCTION. Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the family Caliciviridae and is a major causative agent of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis in humans.It is well known that NoV strains isolated worldwide are morphologically similar but antigenically diverse (8, 10, 20).Genetic analysis has resulted in the classification of human NoV strains into at least three genogroups: genogroup I (GI), GII. Structure of an authentic norovirus virion. The novel finding from this study is that the structure of MNV shows a surprising departure from previously defined calicivirus structures. Two crystal structures (6, 26) and several cryo-TEM structures (7, 32) of caliciviruses have been determined to date. In all of these cases, the P domains lie. There's no escaping norovirus when you have it—the symptoms from this gastroenteritis-causing virus, though brief, are often debilitating. Preventing infections will rely on improving our understanding of how norovirus enters host cells. Orchard et al. show that the entry of murine norovirus (MNoV) into host cells requires a protein called CD300lf. In cell culture, mouse cells needed to. Public Health Modernization Manual • Executive summary 5 Executive summary Oregon is a leader in its innovative approach to health system transformation, which aims t

Norovirus - BC

  1. Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. 1. In type 2 diabetes, target cells do not respond normally to insulin. 2. In type 1diabetes, no insulin is produced. 3. In both type 1 and type 2diabetes, glucose levels remain higher than normal
  2. The first was a norovirus genogroup II (GII) outbreak that occurred on 8 October 2008 during a three hour Boeing 737 flight from Boston, USA to Los Angeles, USA. Six of 35 tour group members.
  3. Crystal structure of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A (genotype 1), and its cleavage sites. (A) The two β-barrel sub-domains of the NS3/4A protease domain are indicated in a ribbon diagram (adapted from PDB:1A1R). His57, Asp99, and Ser139, which form the catalytic triad, are shown in ball-and-stick representation

Media in category Virus diagrams. The following 123 files are in this category, out of 123 total. (zh)Virus stucture simple.png 680 × 445; 103 KB. 524px-Arenaviridae-esquema.jpg 524 × 599; 66 KB. 595768.fig.001.jpg 600 × 557; 164 KB. Adeno-associated viruses-genome.jpg 720 × 540; 12 KB Noroviruses are responsible for almost a fifth of all cases of gastroenteritis worldwide. New strains evolve every 2-4 years by escaping herd immunity and cause worldwide epidemics. In the US alone, noroviruses are responsible for ~20 million cases and more than 70,000 hospitalizations of infected children, annually. Efforts towards a vaccine have been hindered by a lack of detailed.

Norovirus - Wikipedi

Norovirus causes roughly 23 million cases of foodborne illnesses in the United States each year. While this virus was characterized over 30 years ago, it remains non- cultivatable in human cells, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the host cell's response to infection. However, in 2004 murine norovirus (MNV) was found to b This structure is composed of five protein subunits that are largely α-helical. In each subunit, a well-resolved two-helix coiled coil extends radially and is approximately 10 nm in length . This structure is anchored to the capsid through an interaction with the Ta triplex-like structures that are arranged about the portal-vertex Free cliparts pictures provides you with 10 virus drawing bacteriophage clip arts. The term was derived from bacteria and the greek fagein phagein to devour. How to draw bacteriophage diagram. Bacteriophage infection the cycle of infection results in the death of the host cell and the release of many virus particles called virions Norovirus infection is a self-limited illness that lasts two to three days in most people. As discussed above, complications are usually related to dehydration or underlying illnesses. In some countries where poor hydration already may exist in children, many may die from dehydration if IV replenishment is not available.. PLEASE NOTE the Latest video - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-Yd-_XIWJg&t=41sUpdated data with complete MoA available at:http://coronavirus.scientificanim..

herpes simplex virus particle structure - capsid stock illustrations. human papilloma virus. hpv - capsid stock illustrations. colorful parvovirus b19 particle structure isolated - capsid stock illustrations. tailed bacteriophage vector illustration. labeled virus educational scheme. - capsid stock illustrations Other nearby cells can then be infected with the virus. This process can be as quick as twelve hours in the case of the norovirus. or several days for the process of Ebola Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions Noroviruses are members of a group of viruses called caliciviruses also known previously as Norwalk-like viruses. Norovirus affects the stomach and intestines, causing an illness called gastroenteritis. While this is sometimes incorrectly referred to as stomach flu, it is not the flu (or Influenza), which is a respiratory illness

May 4, 2020. A Cornell study of the structure of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, reveals a unique feature that could explain why it is so transmissible between people. The Cornell group also notes that - aside from primates - cats, ferrets and mink are the animal species apparently most susceptible to the human virus Model of norovirus-HBGA interaction. This model is proposed based on the classification of two binding groups of norovirus (NV) to human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs): the A/B binding group and the Lewis binding group. The five-circle structure represents a pentasaccharide as the final product (ALe b or BLe b) of human HBGAs. The three. Norovirus infection can sweep through families and communities. It's especially likely to spread among people in confined spaces. In most cases, you pick up the virus from contaminated food or water, although person-to-person transmission also is possible. Rotavirus The original norovirus was called the Norwalk virus, after an outbreak of intestinal flu at an elementary school in Norwalk, Ohio, in 1968. But since that outbreak, researchers have come to.

Structural Biology of Noroviruses Basicmedical Ke

Genome Structure. The genome of the rotavirus is segmented and consists of eleven segments of linear double-stranded RNA. The complete genome is 16500-21000 nucleotides long. The 5'-terminal sequence has conserved regions; 5'-end of the genome has a methylated nucleotide cap. The cap sequence type is m7G5ppp5'GmpNp Researchers determined the structure of a protein on the surface of the hepatitis C virus that allows it to gain entry into cells. The finding may aid in the development of a vaccine to prevent the liver disease. Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) attacks the liver, leading to inflammation

Norovirus CD

  1. Start studying Food-borne Diseases. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools
  2. The structure of HIV. HIV is called a retrovirus because it works in a back-to-front way. Unlike other viruses, retroviruses store their genetic information using RNA instead of DNA, meaning they need to 'make' DNA when they enter a human cell in order to make new copies of themselves. HIV is a spherical virus
  3. The norovirus season usually peaks from December to March and begins to decline in April. By Friday, Douglas County health officials had investigated five outbreaks of the illness at long-term.
Humane Noroviren – Wikipedia

Virus Structure Forms of Viruses Virus Structure Types

The GII.4 Sydney 2012 strain of human norovirus (HuNoV) is a pandemic strain that is responsible for the majority of norovirus outbreaks in healthcare settings. The function of the non-structural (NS)1-2 protein from HuNoV is unknown. In silico analysis of human norovirus NS1-2 protein showed that it shares features with the murine NS1-2 protein, including a disordered region, a transmembrane. The key difference between enveloped and nonenveloped viruses is that enveloped viruses possess a lipid bilayer surrounding the protein capsid, while nonenveloped viruses lack this lipid bilayered membrane.. Viruses are tiny infectious particles that show living as well as non-living characteristics. Virus particles have two main components: the viral genome and the protein capsid Colds caused by rhinoviruses usually last between seven and ten days. However, if your immune system is weak, it may take longer for you to recover. When the cold first strikes, you may notice that your throat feels sore. As the illness progresses, you may have a runny nose, followed by coughing and sneezing Norovirus, Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial resistance, gastroenteritis, makeupartist, vomiting, antibiotics, Microorganism, influenza, Purchase, bacteria, Antimicrobia Coronavirus genome structure and replication Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;287:1-30. doi: 10.1007/3-540-26765-4_1. Authors D A Brian 1 , R S Baric. Affiliation 1 Departments of Microbiology and.

Structural Biology of Noroviruses | Basicmedical Key

Structural basis for murine norovirus engagement of bile

Figure 5. Epidemic curve from outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in U.S. Army trainees in 1998 pothesized exposure time and the peak of the epi curve represents the hypothesized median incubation period (3). Figure 5 was created from a U.S. Army trainee out-break of norovirus gastroenteritis in 1998 (4). In thi Norovirus, of which only Norovirus and Sapovirus are able to infect humans causing gastroenteritis (more commonly known as the stomach flu) [3]. The genus Norovirus (NV) based on the gene sequence of the capsid protein is subdivided into at least five genogroups (GI-V), consisting of more than 30 strains (Fig. 1) [2] Fig. 1. A 17 Å structure of West Nile virus determined by cryo-EM. (A) A surface shaded view of the virus with one asymmetric unit of the icosahedron shown by the triangle.The 5-fold and 3-fold icosahedral symmetry axes are labeled. (B) A central cross section showing the concentric layers of density.(C) The arrangement of the homology modeled WNV E protein (Cα-backbone is shown in blue)

Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature

Norovirus RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 4 of 1,017 normal slaughtered pigs in Japan and in 2 of 100 pooled pig fecal samples in the Netherlands . These porcine NoVs (Sw43/97/JP, Sw918/97/JP, and 34/98/NET) are genetically similar and are classified into GII ( 9 , 10 ), like most epidemic human. Figure 1. The overall dimeric structure and detailed dimer interface of mature SARS-CoV Mpro. (A) A ribbon diagram for the dimer structure of mature SARS-CoV Mpro (PDB code: 1UK4). Monomers A and B are represented in green and cyan, respectively, and the three domains are labeled Biosafety Levels (BSL) Research and teaching activities involving infectious agents requires prior approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) via the Biohazard Use Authorization (BUA) review process. Each laboratory space where biohazardous materials are used is assigned one of 3 internationally recognized biosafety levels or BSL 1.2 Human Norovirus Targets and Available Inhibitors 5 1.2.1 Viral entry 5 1.2.2 Non-structural proteins of norovirus 5 1.3 Norovirus 3CL Protease, Structure, Substrate Interactions and Mechanism 7 1.3.1 Norovirus 3CLpro substrate specificity and binding pockets Norovirus, also known as the winter vomiting bug, is a highly contagious virus that infects people of any age. The virus attacks the gastrointestinal tract in humans, causing nausea and vomiting among other symptoms. The virus mainly spreads through drinking contaminated water, eating contaminated food or coming into contact with feces of an.

Diagram Of Adeno Virus Particle Structure Stock

Norovirus (winter vomiting bug): life cycle, pathogenicity

Basore et al. describe an X-ray crystal structure of Mxra8, an entry receptor for arthritogenic alphaviruses, and cryo-EM structures of Mxra8 bound to CHIKV. Mxra8 has an unusual Ig-like domain architecture with a head-to-head arrangement, with domain 1 emanating from a loop of domain 2. Mxra8 binds into a complex quaternary cleft formed between two E2-E1 heterodimers within a trimeric spike. Norwalk virus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis for which effective treatments are sorely lacking. To provide a basis for the rational design of novel antiviral agents, the main replication enzyme in Norwalk virus, the virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), has been expressed in an enzymatically active form, and its structure has been crystallographically determined both. The architecture of a 'shape-shifting' norovirus - Phys.org The architecture of a 'shape-shifting' norovirus - Phys.org Viruses Live on Doorknobs and Phones and Can Get You Sick - Smart Cleaning and Good Habits Can Help Protect You - Michigan Medicine Washington-grown berries recalled for Norovirus concern - Q13 News Seattle The architecture of a 'shape-shifting'.

Norovirus -Norwalk agent

High-resolution cryo-EM structures of outbreak strain

Download 1,067 Gastroenteritis Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! New users enjoy 60% OFF. 163,934,419 stock photos online The nucleocapsid, the core structure of all viruses, contains protein and nucleic acid. The protein portion of the nucleocapsid, called the capsid, coats and protects the virus genome. In some. Go over the entire structure of virus, including the capsid, protein coat, nucleic acid Question 7 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an illness caused by a coronavirus EFFICACY OF COMMON DISINFECTANT/CLEANING AGENTS IN INACTIVATING MURINE NOROVIRUS AND FELINE CALICIVIRUS AS SURROGATE VIRUSES FOR HUMAN NOROVIRUS by Stephanie Chiu B.Sc., The Univ

Norovirus -Norwalk agent - SlideShar

Figure 1.2 The structure of present research...6 Figure 2.1 The total number of foodborne norovirus outbreaks (per 10,000 person- year) in the USA (1998-2012) reported to centers for Disease control an Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of epidemic acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis, and replicates through virion protein genome-linked (VPg)-primed or de novo RNA synthesis by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). VPg is a multifunctional protein that plays crucial roles in viral protein translation and genome replication. However, the interaction between the RdRp and this multifunctional VPg. References. Bok K, Green KY. Norovirus gastroenteritis in immunocompromised patients. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29;367(22):2126-2132. Norovirus The structure also provides a systematic structure to support coordinated communication and resolve issues. OMT's meet daily (7 days a week). The Residential Site Manager/Director of Care (or designate) or Acute Care Site Diagram 4 - Gastrointestinal (GI) Outbreak - Acute Care Facilitie

Functional Analysis of RNA Structures Present at the 3

The leading causes of foodborne viral disease outbreaks are human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Their environmental persistence enables contamination of kitchen surfaces and crops often consumed raw, such as berries. Many decontamination procedures are inefficient and unsuitable for surfaces of industrial kitchen environments and soft fruits Rotavirus anatomy. structure of virion. Vector diagram of the location of rotavirus structural proteins. (TEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by norovirus virions, or virus particles. Noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, and the family Caliciviridae. They are a group of related, single-stranded RNA. The structure of all viruses includes a protein shell called a capsid. Enveloped viruses have an additional layer that covers the capsid. This membrane is composed of lipids and proteins it stole from the host cells and viral glycoproteins (sugars combined with proteins). (Norovirus), common colds (Rhinovirus) and Polio. ProfessorDepartment of Epidemiology3304 MHRC, School of Public Health919-966-3895 Research Most of the research in our laboratory has used coronaviruses as models to study the genetics of RNA virus transcription, replication, persistence, and cross species transmission. We have also been using alphavirus vaccine vectors to develop novel candidate vaccines against caliciviruses. Specific areas. Two strains of human coronavirus, 229E and OC43, are known to cause approximately 25% of colds that exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by the rhinoviruses (e.g. runny nose, sneezing, and cough). However, recent zoonotic strains of coronavirus characterized by species-jumping from animals to humans have gained notoriety and become of.

Diagram showing structure of adenovirus | Free VectorViruses, Bacteria, and Epidemiology | Biology I Laboratory

Diagram Of The Bodies Immune System Do Isolate Island P Eople Have No Immune System. Immune System Cams Cherries And Immune System Weak Immune System Test Nhs. Optimum Probiotics Deep Immune System Support Review Build Your Immune System Against Norovirus, Tuberculosis And Weakened Immune System New Chapter Immune System Caliciviruses are positive-sense, single stranded RNA viruses containing four recognized genera: Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus and Vesivirus. They are ubiquitous in the environment and are a major cause of disease in humans and many animals. Examples include Norwalk virus, a norovirus, thought to be responsible for roughly 90% of epidemic. The RHDV Pol structure has been ral genes (15). The approximately 7.6-kb polyadenylated pos- resolved to 2.5-Å resolution and has a right-hand conforma- itive-sense RNA genome of norovirus is organized into three tion that is characteristic of other RdRps of positive-strand open reading frames (ORFs) (16, 21) Most of the work is one by the macro \infobox, which takes three arguments: \infobox {position} {heading} {text} where the position is an (x,y) -coordinate. All this macro does is draw two nodes. The first one is a rectangular node that contains the text in a minipage environment and the second node is the heading, which is placed as a. Norovirus is a highly contagious gastrointestinal illness that causes the rapid onset of vomiting, diarrhea Figure 1 shows a basic diagram of the daily routes of exposure for a student and the decision points structure was created at the start of each set of runs. Homophily theories suggest that children who shar Norovirus infection causes gastroenteritis (disease of the stomach and intestines). Norovirus infections are highly contagious and are a leading cause of gastroenteritis in Australia and worldwide. Outbreaks occur in residential care facilities, hospitals, schools and child care centres. Outbreaks can occur at any time of the year but are much.